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How Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy can Affect the baby in the Womb

How Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy can Affect the baby in the Womb-Diabetes alters the normal balances involved in glucose metabolism and insulin production, regulation, and action in a dynamic way that changes throughout gestation. In the post, you will discover in detail, how Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy can Affect the baby in the Womb.

The common problem among the babies of diabetic mothers is “Amacrosoma” which means large baby, birth weight > 97 centile for gestation more than 4.4kg at term, in other words, babies of diabetic women usually are usually considerably larger than others.

The condition is a result of the ingestion of excess sugar by the fetus via the placenta in the womb. The fetal pancreas senses the high sugar level and it produces more in an attempt to use up all the extra sugar. The extra sugar level is converted to fat, making a large fetus. Sometimes the fetus becomes too large to be developed vaginally and the cesarean section becomes necessary.

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The risk of maternal diabetes to the developing fetus include;, Miscarriage, growth restriction, polydramous, birth injury, such as shoulder dystocia, and fetal obesity (macrosomia).


Signs and Symptoms

Patients with diabetes mellitus may present in one of the following ways:

  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia
  • Weight loss despite a good appetite
  • Dehydration
  • Acetone breath
  • Mental confusion
  • Apathy
  • Coma

How it can be Managed

Diabetes Mellitus can be effectively managed by appropriate diet planning, increased physical activity and properly instituted insulin treatment(hypoglycemic agents)

1. Diet Planning: Cutdown sweet drinks, eat three small meals a day, ingest fiber in the form of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

2.Increased physical activity: Physical exercise such as working during decrease insulin resistance and enhances decrease risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

3. Monitoring of Blood Sugar level Frequently: Blood sugar level should be below 9.5mg/dl (15mm/L) two hours after a meal.


Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Vascular Complications
  • Diabetic Food problems (ulcer)
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